Oenospila flavifusata Walker, Thallasodes quadraria, Hyposidra talaca (Walker) and Pingasa ruginaria Guenee (Geometridae: Lepidoptera)
- Tiny reddish eggs of flavifuscata are laid on margin of tender leaves and they hatch in about 5 days. Young caterpillars have reddish tinged body, thin, but when grown become green in colour.
- The larvae of quadraria are pinkish, slender and assume a characteristic pose oblique to the stem on the twigs and are mistaken for part of a twig or leaf petiole.
- Larva of ruginaria is green having white cross markings throughout the body. In adults, the patterns on both its forewings and hindwings would enable it to blend against the bark of a tree, especially one with lichen growth.
- Eggs of talaca are greenish blue in colour and oval in shape. First instar appears black or brownish black with transverse white stripes and turns into brownish towards later stages. The wing colour of the male moth is brownish with minute black spots. Whereas, wing colour of female moth remain blackish brown, pointed and designed with wavy lines of dark shades of grey and brown. Two distinct white spots are present at the apical region of the forewings of both male and female.
Larvae of different semi looper pests: O. flavifusata, H. talaca (early instar), H. talaca (late instar), P. ruginaria
Symptoms of damage:
All the loopers defoliate the tender leaves from the margins. The tender shoots damaged by O. flavifusata are left only with midribs. Besides leaves, the larvae of P. ruginaria also feed on inflorescences.