Research on cashew was first initiated in the early 1950s. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), sanctioned ad hoc schemes for Research Centres located at Kottarakkara (Kerala), Ullal (Karnataka), Bapatla (Andhra Pradesh), Daregaon (Assam) and Vengurla (Maharashtra). In 1971, ICAR also sanctioned All India Coordinated Spices and Cashew Improvement Project (AICS and CIP) with its Headquarters located at CPCRI, Kasaragod. The CPCRI Regional Station, Vittal (Karnataka) was given the mandate to carry out research work on cashew while four Centres under University (Bapatla, Vridhachalam, Anakkayam and Vengur¬la) were assigned the research component on cashew under AICS and CIP. During the V and VI plan periods three more Centres (Bhubanes¬war, Jhargram and Chintamani) came under the fold of AICS and CIP and with shifting of work of Anakkayam Centre to Madakkathara. The recommendations made by the Quinquennial Review Team (QRT) constituted by ICAR in 1982, working group on Agricultural Research and Education constituted by the Plan¬ning Commission for VII Plan Proposals and the Task Force on Horticulture constituted by ICAR resulted in the establishment of National Research Centre for Cashew at Puttur on 18 June, 1986 which was upgraded and renamed by ICAR in 2009 under XI Plan as Directorate of Cashew Research (DCR). Subsequent to the bifurcation of AICS and CIP, the Headquarters of All India Coordinated Research Project on Cashew was shifted to DCR, Puttur. At present, this Coordinated Research Project is operating at 14 Centres distributed in major cashew growing areas of the country.